K2VIEW ebook

What is Data Mesh?

A Market Primer  

Data mesh, a decentralized data management architecture, relies on 4 principles:
Data products, domain ownership, instant access, and federated governance.

Data mesh by domains


Why Data Mesh

The simple premise of data mesh is that business domains should be able to define, access, and control their own data products.

The thinking is, that business stakeholders in a specific domain understand their data needs better than anybody else. And when business people are forced to work with data engineers or data scientists outside their domain, provisioning the right data, to the right data consumers, at the right time, is time-consuming, often error-prone, and ultimately, ineffective.

Chapter 01

Data Mesh Principles

Data mesh architecture has emerged to address the following key data management principles:
  • A single source of truth is a must, but it’s incredibly challenging when data is scattered among hundreds of disparate legacy, cloud, and hybrid systems.
  • The volume of data is growing exponentially, with increasing demand for instant data access and faster response times.
  • Data needs to be made available to everyone, all the time, without the need for technical expertise or any involvement of IT.
  • Effective data management requires collaboration, of data engineers, data scientists, business analysts, and operational data consumers.


Chapter 02

What is Data Mesh?

Data mesh, an emerging data architecture for organizing and delivering enterprise data, is founded on 4 key concepts:
  • Data as a product, where data products – comprised of clean, fresh, and complete data – are delivered to any data consumer, anytime, anywhere, based on permissions and roles
  • Business domain-driven data ownership, which reduces the reliance on centralized data teams (often including data engineers and data scientists)
  • Instant access to data, enabled by new levels of abstraction and automation – designed to share relevant data cross-functionally, on demand
  • Distributed data governance, where each domain governs its own data products, but is reliant on central control of data modeling, security policies, and compliance

In a data mesh, every business domain retains control over all aspects of its data products for both analytical and operational use cases – in terms of quality, freshness, privacy compliance, etc. – and is responsible for sharing them with other domains (departments in the enterprise).

Chapter 03

What are Data Products?

Data products are produced to be consumed with a specific purpose in mind. A data product may assume a variety of forms, based on the specific business domain or use case to be addressed.

A data product will often correspond to a dataset of one or more business entities – such as customer, asset, supplier, order, credit card, campaign, etc. – that data consumers would like to access for analytical and operational workloads. The data for will typically originate in dozens of siloed source systems, often of different technologies, structures, formats, and terminologies.

A data product, therefore, encapsulates everything that a data consumer requires in order to derive value from the business entity's data. This includes the product's:

  • Metadata, both static and active (usage and performance)
  • Algorithms, for processing the ingested, raw data
  • Data, post-processing (i.e., unified, cleansed, enriched, anonymized data)
  • Access methods, such as SQL, JDBC, web services, streaming, CDC,...
  • Synchronization rules, defining how and when the data is synced with the source systems
  • Orchestrated data flows, as visualized in a modern data catalog
  • Lineage, to the source systems
  • Audit log, of data changes
  • Access controls, including credential checking and authentication

The data product is created by applying cross-functional, product lifecycle methodology to data.

The data product lifecycle

The data product delivery lifecycle adheres to the agile principles of being short and iterative, to deliver quick, incremental value to data consumers. A data product approach entails:

  • Definition and design
    Data product requirements are defined in the context of business objectives, data privacy and governance constraints, and existing data asset inventories. Data product design depends on how the data will be structured, and how it will be componentized as a product, for consumption via services.
  • Engineering
    Data products are engineered by identifying, integrating, and collating the data from its sources, and then employing data masking (aka data anonymization) as needed. Web service APIs are created to provide consuming applications with the authority to access the data product, and pipelines are secured for delivering the data to its constituents. 
  • Quality assurance
    The data is tested and validated to ensure that it’s complete, compliant, and fresh – and that it can be securely consumed by applications at massive scale.
  • Support and maintenance
    Data usage, pipeline performance, and reliability are continually monitored, by local authorities and data engineers, to so issues can be addressed as they arise.
  • Management
    Just as a software product manager is responsible for defining user needs, prioritizing them, and then working with development and QA teams to ensure delivery, the data product approach calls for a similar role. The data product manager is responsible for delivering business value and ROI, where measurable objectives – such as response times for operational insights, or the pace of application development – have definitive goals, or timelines, based on SLAs reached between business and IT.

Chapter 04

Attributes of Data Mesh

With the meteoric rise of cloud-based applications, application architectures are transitioning away from centralized IT, towards distributed, data services (or a service mesh). 

Data architecture is following the same trend, with data being distributed across a wide range of physical sites, spanning many locations (or a data mesh). Although a monolithic, centralized data architecture is often simpler to create and maintain, in an IT world propelling to the cloud, there are many good reasons and benefits to having a modular, decentralized data management system.

Data mesh represents a decentralized way of distributing data across virtual and physical networks. Where legacy data integration tools require a highly centralized infrastructure, a data mesh operates across on-premise, single-cloud, multi-cloud and edge environments.

Distributed security
When data is highly distributed and decentralized, security plays a critical role. Distributed systems must delegate authentication and authorization activities out to a host of different users, with different levels of access. Key data mesh security capabilities include:

  • Data encryption, at rest and in motion
  • Data masking tools, for effective PII obfuscation
  • Data privacy management, in all its forms
  • GDPR and CCPA compliance, and all other legislation
  • Identity management, including LDAP/IAM-type services

Data product mindset
Innovative data product practices combine the concepts of "design thinking", for breaking down the organizational silos that often impede cross-functional innovation, and the "jobs to be done" theory, which defines the product’s ultimate purpose in fulfilling specific data consumer goals.

Chapter 05

Data Mesh Objectives

The objectives of data mesh are to:
  • Exchange data products between data producers and data consumers

  • Simplify the way data is processed, organized, and governed

  • Democratize data with a self-service approach that minimizes dependence on IT

The table below compares the features of traditional data management platforms to data mesh architectures.

Traditional data management platforms

Data mesh architectures

Serve a centralized data team that supports multiple domains

Serve autonomous domain teams

Manage code, data, and policies, as a single unit

Manage code and pipelines independently

Require separate stacks for operational and analytical workloads

Provide a single platform for operational and analytic workloads

Cater to IT, with little regard for Business

Cater to IT and Business, alike

Centralize the platform for optimized control

Decentralize the platform for optimized scale

Force domain awareness

Remain domain-agnostic

The left-hand-side of the table describes most monolithic data platforms. They serve a centralized IT team, and are optimized for control. Operational stacks used to run enterprise software, are completely separated from the clusters managing the analytical data.

The data mesh dictates greater autonomy in the management of data flows, data pipelines, and policies. In the end of the day, data mesh is an architecture based on decentralized thinking that can be applied to any domain.

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Chapter 06

Data Mesh Challenges

The main challenges of a data mesh stem from the complexities inherent to managing multiple data products (and their dependencies) across multiple autonomous domains.

Here are the key considerations:

  • Multi-domain data duplication
    Redundancy, which may occur when the data of one domain is repurposed to serve the business needs another domain, could potentially impact resource utilization and data management costs.
  • Federated data governance and quality assurance
    Different domains may require different data governance tools, which must be taken into account when data products and pipelines are shared commodities. The resulting deltas must be identified and federated.
  • Change management
    Decentralizing data management to adopt a data mesh approach requires significant change management in highly centralized data management practices.
  • Cost and risk
    Existing data and analytics tools should be adapted and augmented to support a data mesh architecture. Establishing a data management infrastructure to support a data mesh - including data integration, virtualization, preparation, masking, governance, orchestration, cataloging, and delivery - can be a very large, costly, and risky undertaking. 
  • Cross-domain analytics
    An enterprise-wide data model must be defined to consolidate the various data products and make them available to authorized users in one central location.

Chapter 07

Data Mesh Benefits

The benefits of a data mesh are significant, and include the following:
  • Agility and scalability
    Data mesh improves business domain agility, scalability, and speed to value from data. It decentralizes data operations, and provisions data infrastructure as a service. As a result, it reduces IT backlog, and enables business teams to operate independently and focus on the data products relevant to their needs.
  • Cross-functional domain teams
    As opposed to traditional data architecture approaches, in which highly-skilled technical teams are often involved in creating and maintaining a data pipeline, data mesh puts the control of the data in the hands of the domain experts. With increased IT-business cooperation, domain knowledge is enhanced, and business agility is extended.
  • Faster data delivery
    Data mesh makes data accessible to authorized data consumers in a self-service manner, hiding the underlying data complexities from users.
  • Strong central governance and compliance
    With the ever-growing number of data sources and formats, data lakes and DWHs often fail at massive-scale data integration and ingestion. Domain-based data operations, coupled with strict data governance guidelines, promote easier access to fresh, high-quality data. With data mesh, bulk data dumps into data lakes are things of the past.

Chapter 08

Data Mesh Capabilities

Data mesh supports the following functional capabilities:
  • Data catalog
    Discovers, classifies, and creates and inventory of data assets, and visually displays information supply chains
  • Data engineering
    Rapid creation of scalable and reliable data pipelines that support analytical and operational workloads. Common data preparation flows are productized for reuse by the domains.
  • Data governance
    Distributes certain quality assurance, privacy compliance, and data availability policies and enforcement to the business domains, whilst maintaining centralized governance over company-wide data policies.
  • Data preparation and orchestration
    Enables quick orchestration of source-to-target data flows, including data cleansing, transformation, masking, validation, and enrichment
  • Data integration and delivery
    Accesses data from any source and pipelines it to any target, in any method: ETL (bulk), messaging, CDC, virtualization, and APIs
  • Data persistence layer
    Selectively stores and/or caches data in the hub, or within the domains to improve data access performance
Data mesh also addresses the following non-functional capabilities:
  • Data scale, volume, and performance
    Scales both up and down, dynamically, seamlessly, and at high speed, regardless of data volume
  • Accessibility
    Supports all data source types, access modes, formats, technologies, and integrates master and transactional data, at rest, or in motion
  • Distribution
    Deploys on premise, cloud, or in hybrid environments, with complete transactional integrity
  • Security
    Encrypts and masks data, to comply with privacy regulations, and checks user credentials, to ensure authorized access is maintained

Chapter 09

Data Mesh Use Cases

Data mesh supports many different operational and analytical use cases, across multiple domains. Here are a few examples:

  • Customer 360 view, to support customer care in reducing average handle time, increase first contact resolution, and improve customer satisfaction. A single view of the customer may also be deployed by marketing to predictive churn modeling or next-best-offer decisioning
  • Hyper segmentation, to enable marketing teams deliver the right campaign to the right customer, at the right time, and via the right channel
  • Data privacy management to protect customer data by complying with ever-emerging regional data privacy laws, like VCDPA, prior to making it available to data consumers in the business domains
  • IoT device monitoring, providing product teams with insights into edge device usage patterns, to continually improve product adoption and profitability
  • Federated data preparation, enabling domains to quickly provision quality, trusted data for their data analytics workloads

Chapter 10

Implementing Data Mesh with a Data Product Platform

Based on a decentralized design pattern, a real-time data product platform is the optimal implementation for data mesh architecture.

A data product platform creates and delivers data products of connected data from disparate sources to provide a real-time and holistic view of the business to operational and analytical workloads.

A real-time data product platform creates the semantic definition of the various data products that are important to the business. It also sets up the data ingestion methods, and the needed central governance policies, that protect and secure the data in the data products, in accordance with regulations.

Additional platform nodes are deployed in alignment with the business domains, providing the domains with local control of data services and pipelines to access and govern the data products for their respective data consumers.

Generic mesh diagramHere’s what a data mesh implementation looks like based on a real-time data product platform.

In this sense, a data product platform – that manages, prepares, and delivers data in the form of business entities – becomes the data mesh core.

While data mesh architecture introduces technology and implementation challenges, these are neatly addressed with a data product platform:

Data mesh implementation challenges

How they are addressed by a data product platform

Need for data integration expertise
Domain-specific data pipelining requires distributed expertise in complex data integration and modeling of multiple disparate source systems across the enterprise.

Data products as business entities
When the data of a data product is managed in a virtual data layer, domains don’t have to deal with the underlying source systems.

Independence vs confederacy 
Striking the right balance between domain independence and reliance on central data teams isn’t trivial.

Cross-functional collaboration
Centralized data teams collaborate with domain-specific teams to produce the data products. The domain-specific teams create APIs and pipelines for their respective data consumers, govern and control access rights, and monitor usage.

Real-time and batch data delivery
Trusted data products need to be provisioned to both online and offline data consumers, efficiently and securely, on a single platform.

Operational and analytical workloads 
A data product platform ingests and processes data from underlying systems, to deliver data product instances on demand, for operational and analytical use cases.


Chapter 11

K2view Data Product Platform: Data Mesh Inside

The K2view Data Product Platform is ideally suited for implementing data mesh architecture because it:

  • Integrates data, from all sources, into any number of data products, for secure distribution among any number of domains

  • Provides centralized data modeling, governance, and cataloging, while enabling self-service access to the data by domains – for both analytical and operational workloads

  • Creates a federated alliance between all company domains by providing a single, trusted, and holistic view of all business entities, for all domains

  • Epitomizes infrastructure as a platform, having paved the way for multi-dimensional data abstraction and automation, at some of the world’s largest enterprises

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